The chemical profile and seasonal variation of the composition of the phenolic acids in different plant parts of<i> Centaurea</i> sp.

Bouafia M., ÇOLAK N., AYAZ F. A., Gourine N., Yousfi M.

JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, vol.236, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 236
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jpba.2023.115686
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Analytical Abstracts, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Centaurea sp., Growth stages, Phenolic acids, Seasonal variation, Statistical analysis
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigated the seasonal variation (over seven months) of phenolic acid (PHA) components in different parts of Centaurea sp. The primary objective was to determine the pattern of variation, while the sec-ondary objective was to identify which month or growth stage provides a greater total PHA content or percentage of bioactive components. Different patterns of seasonal variations were highlighted for the different PHA com-ponents and their classes (hydroxybenzoic and-cinnamic acids) in different parts of the plant. The leaves exclusively provided the highest PHA contents, with maximum values reached in April (1368.06 & mu;g/g). The major hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (HBAs) identified in the leaves were vanillic acid (VaA) "154.18-374.06 & mu;g/g" and protocatechuic acid (PA) "9.37-595.61 & mu;g/g", while the major hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAs) were p-coumaric acid (p-CoA) "109.35-261.77 & mu;g/g", m-coumaric acid (m-CoA) "10.22-70.57 & mu;g/g", and ferulic acid (FeA) "35.54-109.13 & mu;g/g". The maximum percentage of PA was obtained in April "595.61 & mu;g/g", while the maximum p-CoA content was obtained in January "261.77 & mu;g/g". Therefore, the leaves can be rec-ommended as the optimal source of PHAs. If there is a specific interest in certain PHA components, we recommend collection in either January or April. Multivariate statistical analysis (PCA & AHC) showed the existence of two main clusters. The first cluster comprised the leaves, distinguished by the highest VaA, PA, and p-CoA contents. The second cluster comprised roots and the root bark samples. This study provides information on the development of PHAs in different parts of Centaurea sp. and explores potential applications. It will be of considerable interest for determining the optimal harvesting time of shrub species used for their medicinal properties and bio-active phenolic contents.