A preliminary assessment of metal/metalloid levels in wild and farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and risks imposed on human health

ALKAN N., ALKAN A., Polat H.

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, vol.52, no.5, pp.2160-2172, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/are.15068
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.2160-2172
  • Keywords: Black Sea, metal concentrations, Metalloid concentrations, Psetta maeoticus, Turkey, HEAVY-METALS, TRACE-METALS, FISH SIZE, CONTAMINATION, ELEMENT, MUSCLE, TISSUE, CADMIUM, ORGANS, LIVER
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a commercially important marine flatfish fish popular for its white, firm and bright flesh regarded as tasty fish. The concentrations of arsenic, antimony, lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium and zinc in the organs of turbot were investigated. Samples of wild fish were collected along the Eastern Black Sea region. At the same time, farmed fish were acquired from a hatchery in Trabzon. The highest concentrations were recorded either in the liver or gonads, whereas the muscle had the lowest levels of the studied metals/metalloids. Lead (as mean 0.09 mg kg(-1) dry weight), chromium (1.40 mg kg(-1)), copper (9.19 mg kg(-1)), nickel (0.40 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (268.90 mg kg(-1)) were accumulated most highly in gonads, while cobalt (0.26 mg kg(-1)), cadmium (0.42 mg kg(-1)), arsenic (17. mg kg(-1)), manganese (2.70 mg kg(-1)) and molybdenum (0.25 mg kg(-1)) in the liver. Furthermore, the contents of arsenic, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and zinc were highest in wild turbot, while cobalt, cadmium, lead and chromium in farmed turbot. The human health risks were assessed by hazard quotients, target hazard quotient and total target hazard quotient, which indicated no health concern associated with the intake of the studied metals/metalloids via consumption of either farmed or wild turbot.