Transparent and conductive CdS:Ca thin films for optoelectronic applications

Yilmaz S., Polat İ., Tomakin M., Bacaksız E.

APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING, vol.126, no.7, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 126 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00339-020-03752-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex
  • Keywords: CdS thin films, Ca-doping, Spray pyrolysis, Optical properties, Electrical properties, OPTICAL-PROPERTIES, ROOM-TEMPERATURE, ZINC-OXIDE, NANOPARTICLES
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This paper presents the structural, morphological, optical and electrical evolution of Ca-doped CdS thin films. Non-doped and Ca-doped CdS samples with various amounts of Ca atoms (from 0 to 10 at.% with an increasing step of 2 at.%) were grown by spray pyrolysis route on glass slides. The structural investigation by X-ray diffraction showed that Ca-doping distorted CdS structure until 8 at.% Ca-doping and then a slight improvement in the intensity of (101) peak was obtained for 10 at.% Ca-doping compared to the other Ca-doping samples. Morphological analysis displayed a grain growth for a low amount of Ca-doping whereas higher concentration of Ca-doping led to a reduction in the grain size of CdS thin films. More stoichiometric CdS specimens were obtained after various amounts of Ca-doping according to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data. Transparency of the CdS samples enhanced remarkably with the incorporation of Ca atoms in CdS with a particular concentration of 10 at.%. Tauc's plot investigation illustrated that the bandgap score of samples changed from 2.54 eV for non-doped CdS to 2.48 eV for 4 at.% Ca-doped CdS thin films. Further increase of Ca-doping doesn't vary the bandwidth of CdS samples. Photoluminescence data indicated that Ca-doped CdS thin films had lower intrinsic defects compared with non-doped CdS one. The electrical examination demonstrated that the carrier density of CdS thin films increased till 6 at.% Ca-doping and then decreased further increase of Ca-doping. However, resistivity values exhibited the opposite behavior accordingly. In conclusion, it can be pronounced that 6 at.% Ca-doped CdS thin films are the optimum specimen to be used as an effective transparent and conductive material in the optoelectronic devices.