The effect of metal rate on the gamma shielding parameters of hydroxyapatite at medical treatment energies

Koksal O., APAYDIN G., Karahan I., Tozar A.

APPLIED RADIATION AND ISOTOPES, vol.190, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 190
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2022.110456
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts
  • Keywords: Gamma -ray spectroscopy, Mass attenuation coefficient, Doped hydroxyapatite, Animal bones, ABSORPTION JUMP RATIO, MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES, SUBSTITUTED HYDROXYAPATITE, BONE, ZINC, IRON, RAY, BIOMATERIALS, ADSORPTION, GLASSES
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a kind of biomaterial which is used for bone treatment applications. We have scrutinized the gamma attenuation parameters such as such as the effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (Nel), mass attenuation coefficient (MAC), linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), half value layer (HVL), tenth value layer (TVL) and mean free path (MFP) for only single liquid gamma source and a narrow beam geometry for the energy (medical treatment energy) ranging from 778 keV to 1408 keV (Eu-152) for the animal bone, iron, cobalt, copper, and zinc decorated Nano hydroxyapatite (nFeHAp, nCoHAp, nCuHAp, and nZnHAp) artificial bone powders. The gamma-rays were counted with using Ultra Low Energy Germanium detection system with a resolution 150 eV at 5,95 keV and a high purity germanium detector with a resolution of 1.85 keV at 1.33 MeV experimentally. The gamma ray attenuation parameters are calculated for the metal doped hydroxyapatite and compare with the animal bone. The results were compared with the output XCOM NIST data. While the mass absorption coefficient values for animal bone range from 0.08 to 0.05 at current energy levels, the values for metal-added artificial bone powders range from 0.07 to 0.05. While the linear absorption coefficient values for existing energy values for animal bone range from 0.04 to 0.02, they range from 0.03 to 0.02 for metal-added artificial bone powders. Mean free path values for real bone range from 24 to 36 at current energies, while half value layer values range from 16 to 25 and tenth value layer values range from 56 to 83. For metaldoped artificial bone powders, these parameters range from 26 to 35, 18 to 24, and 61 to 80, respectively. The results points that, the data of the gamma ray attenuation parameters are very close to the value of the animal bone due to the removal of calcium atoms from the structure when metal is added.