The Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite consists of a mantle unit and overlying crustal rocks. The mantle peridotite is composed of harzburgitic to dunitic rocks that are depleted in Al2O3 and CaO compared to primitive mantle. The low whole-rock Al and Ca values are consistent with the high Cr# [= 100 x Cr/(Cr + Al)] values of spinel that range from 44 to 70. These spinels generally have low TiO2 (<0.06 wt.%) concentrations, although spinels with high-Cr compositions in certain samples exhibit enrichments of up to 0.16 wt% TiO2. The concentrations of chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REEs) indicate depletion toward heavy to middle REEs. However, the entire mantle peridotite samples exhibit marked enrichment in light REEs and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) compared to middle REEs. The heavy REE patterns of some peridotite samples are comparable to the calculated melting curves representing various degrees of melting and are modeled by similar to 24% to 30% melting in the spinel stability field. However, some samples are more depleted in the middle REEs than heavy REEs. The patterns of heavy to middle REEs do not follow the melting lines produced by various degrees of melting in the spinel stability field. The heavy REE composition of these peridotite samples suggests that partial melting began in the garnet stability field and continued into the spinel stability field; they represent similar to 22% to 26% melting under various pressure conditions.