Plants have several defense mechanisms against unfavorable environmental conditions. One of these mechanisms is leaf rolling. In this review, leaf rolling as a response to water deficit stress and biochemical changes during leaf rolling in higher plants are reported. For instance, the activities of some enzymes and osmotic substances change during leaf rolling. Leaf rolling increases drought resistance in numerous species in the Gramineae as well as in Ctenanthe setosa, a perennial herbaceous plant that is a suitable model for use in studies of leaf rolling.