NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER PART A-APPLICATIONS, vol.60, no.5, pp.381-409, 2011 (SCI-Expanded)
In this study, two-dimensional steady-state simulations of laminar natural convection in square enclosures with vertical sidewalls subjected to constant heat flux have been carried out, where the enclosures are considered to be completely filled with a yield-stress fluid obeying the Bingham model. Yield stress effects on heat and momentum transport are investigated for nominal values of Rayleigh number (Ra) in the range 10(3)-10(6) and a Prandtl number (Pr) range of 0.1-100. It is found that the mean Nusselt number (Nu) over bar increases with increasing values of Rayleigh number for both Newtonian and Bingham fluids. However, (Nu) over bar values obtained for Bingham fluids are smaller than that obtained in the case of Newtonian fluids with the same nominal value of Rayleigh number Ra due to weakening of convective transport. The mean Nusselt number (Nu) over bar in the case of Bingham fluids is found to decrease with increasing Bingham number, and for large values of Bingham number Bn, the value settles to unity ((Nu) over bar = 1.0) as heat transfer takes place principally due to thermal conduction. The (Nu) over bar values for the vertical walls subjected to constant heat flux are smaller than the corresponding values in the same configuration with constant vertical wall temperatures (for identical values of nominal Rayleigh, Prandtl, and Bingham numbers). However, the value of Bingham number at which (Nu) over bar approaches to unity remains the same for both constant wall temperature and constant wall heat flux configurations. It is demonstrated that for small values of Bingham number (Nu) over bar increases with increasing Prandtl number, but the opposite behavior occurs for large values of Bingham number. New correlations are proposed for the mean Nusselt number (Nu) over bar for both Newtonian and Bingham fluids for square enclosures with vertical walls subjected to constant heat flux, which are shown to satisfactorily capture the correct qualitative and quantitative behavior of (Nu) over bar in response to changes in Ra, Pr, and Bn.