Ninety-eight isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were obtained from barley and wheat grown in Erzurum, Turkey. Of these, 78% were Rhizoctonia solani (AG-2 type 1, AG-3, AG-4, AG-5 and AG-11), 10% were binucleate Rhizoctonia (AG-I and AG-K) and the remainder were Waitea circinata var circinata (Rhizoctonia sp.). Among the binucleate Rhizoctonia, AG-I was not recovered from barley. In pathogenicity tests on barley and wheat, the highest disease severity was caused by isolates of AG-4 and AG-11, whereas isolates of AG-2 type 1, AG-3, AG-5 and W. c. var circinata were moderately virulent. Isolates of binucleate Rhizoctonia were all nonpathogenic. This is the first report of R. solani AG-11 and W.c. var circinata from Turkey.