The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare cleaning effectiveness of TwistedFile, GT series X, Revo-S, RaCe, Mtwo, and ProTaper Universal rotary files in curved canals. Seventy mesiobuccal canals of extracted human first maxillary molars were divided into seven groups of 10 samples each. Canals were prepared with six nickeltitanium (NiTi) rotary systems and manual K-Flexofile. Irrigation was performed with 2 mL 2.5% NaOCl solution after each file, and 5 mL 2.5% NaOCl was used for the final flush. After the roots were split longitudinally, the presence of debris and smear layer was visualized using scanning electron microscopic photomicrographs taken at coronal, middle, and apical third. Mean scores for debris and the smear layer were calculated and statistically analyzed for significance between groups using the KruskalWallis nonparametric analysis of variance (P < 0.05) and MannWhitney U test (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of debris and smear layer scores (P > 0.05). Without considering the preparation method used, while no statistically significant difference was found between the coronal third and the middle third (P > 0.05), higher amount of debris and smear layer were found in apical third (P = 0.001). The new generation of NiTi rotary files including the Twisted File and GT Series X presented similar cleaning effectiveness compared with traditionally ground NiTi rotary files. Microsc. Res. Tech. 76:231236, 2013. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.