Examining landslides by different geodetic deformation models: a case study on Esiroglu-Isiklar location, Trabzon, Turkey

Kadı F., Yildirim F.

ACTA GEODAETICA ET GEOPHYSICA, vol.58, no.3, pp.413-449, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 58 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s40328-023-00420-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Compendex, Geobase
  • Page Numbers: pp.413-449
  • Keywords: Geodetic deformation analysis, Geophysical measurements, GNSS, Kalman–filtering technique, Landslide, Mass movement
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Examining the mass movements caused by landslides with different geodetic deformation analyses makes it possible to minimize the possible losses. This study aims to perform different geodetic deformation analyses in a paleo-landslide area in Macka district, one of the districts where landslides are most common. In this context, a total of 24 points, 7 reference and 17 object points, were created. Using a geodetic network, whose reliability and sensitivity optimization was completed, 5 periods of GNSS measurements were made between 2019 and 2021. The mass movements occurring in the study area were first determined using the static deformation model. Then, a kinematic deformation model based on Kalman filtering technique was applied to detect mass movements. Finally, the dynamic deformation model was obtained by considering the monthly total precipitation factor as the external force. According to the results, it has been determined that there are significant mass movements in both horizontal and vertical directions, especially in regions where the slope is high. In addition, the results obtained from the dynamic deformation model were found to be compatible with the results obtained from other deformation models. In addition, geophysical measurements were made in parallel with the geodetic measurements in the study area. As a result of geophysical measurements, the geophysical anatomy of the underground was revealed. This anatomy allowed the results obtained from geodetic measurement methods to be evaluated from a wider perspective. It has been determined that the results obtained from both geodetic and geophysical measurement methods are compatible with each other.