Chikungunya outbreak in Africa: a review of the literature


Chinedu Eneh S., Uwishema O., Nazir A., El Jurdi E., Faith Olanrewaju O., Abbass Z., ...More

ANNALS OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY, no.7, pp.3545-3552, 2023 (ESCI) identifier identifier

Abstract

Introduction:The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), transmitted via mosquitoes, exhibits clinical manifestations ranging from headaches, myalgia and arthralgia to debilitating systemic malfunctions. Endemic to Africa, CHIKV has seen an increase in cases since it was first recorded in 1950. There has recently been an outbreak in numerous African nations. The authors aim to review the history and epidemiology of CHIKV in Africa, current outbreaks, strategies adopted by governments and/or international organisations to mitigate such an outbreak, and future recommendations that can be employed. Methodology:Data were collected from medical journals published on Pubmed and Google Scholar, and from the official World Health Organisation, African and United States of America's Centres for Disease Control and Prevention websites. All articles considering CHIKV in Africa, including epidemiology, aetiology, prevention and management, were sought after. Results:Since 2015, the number of Chikungunya cases in Africa has increased, reaching the highest values ever recorded, especially in 2018 and 2019. Even though numerous vaccination and therapeutic intervention trials are still ongoing, no advancement has been made so far, including drug approval. Current management is supportive, with preventative measures, such as insecticides, repellents, mosquito nets and habitat avoidance, paramount to halting disease spread. Conclusion:In light of the recent CHIKV outbreak in Africa, local and global attempts are re-emerging to mitigate the eruption of the case of the lack of vaccines and antivirals, controlling the virus may be an arduous feat. Improving risk assessment, laboratory detection and research facilities should be a priority.