Hydrochemical, isotopic, and reservoir characterization of the Pasinler (Erzurum) geothermal field, eastern Turkey

Temizel E., GÜLTEKİN F.

ARABIAN JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCES, vol.11, no.1, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12517-017-3349-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: Pasinler geothermal area, Hydrogeochemistry, Isotope geochemistry, Water-rock interaction, Conceptual model, Erzurum,Turkey, RARE-EARTH-ELEMENTS, YELLOWSTONE-NATIONAL-PARK, GEOCHEMICAL INTERPRETATION, WESTERN TURKEY, WATERS, AREA, SYSTEMS, SULFATE, HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY, GROUNDWATER
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The reservoir temperature and conceptual model of the Pasinler geothermal area, which is one of the most important geothermal areas in Eastern Anatolia, are determined by considering its hydrogeochemical and isotope properties. The geothermal waters have a temperature of 51 degrees C in the geothermal wells and are of Na-Cl-HCO3 type. The isotope contents of geothermal waters indicate that they are of meteoric origin and that they recharge on higher elevations than cold waters. The geothermal waters are of immature water class and their reservoir temperatures are calculated as 122-155 degrees C, and their cold water mixture rate is calculated as 32%. According to the delta C-13(VPDB) values, the carbon in the geothermal waters originated from the dissolved carbon in the groundwaters and mantle-based CO2 gases. According to the delta S-34(CDT) values, the sources of sulfur in the geothermal waters are volcanic sulfur, oil and coal, and limestones. The sources of the major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, and HCO3-) in the geothermal waters are ion exchange and plagioclase and silicate weathering. It is determined that the volcanic rocks in the area have effects on the water chemistry and elements like Zn, Rb, Sr, and Ba originated from the rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, and basalts. The rare earth element (REE) content of the geothermal waters is low, and according to the normalized REE diagrams, the light REE are getting depleted and heavy REE are getting enriched. The positive Eu and negative Ce anomalies of waters indicate oxygen-rich environments.