The effect of fibre content on the mechanical properties of hemp and basalt fibre reinforced phenol formaldehyde composites

Ozturk S.

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol.40, no.17, pp.4585-4592, 2005 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 17
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10853-005-1103-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.4585-4592
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths of hemp/phenol formaldehyde (PF), basalt/PF and hemp/basalt hybrid PF composites have been investigated as a function of fibre loading. Hemp fibre reinforced PF composites and basalt fibre reinforced composites were fabricated with varying fibre loading i.e. 20, 32, 40, 48, 56 and 63 vol%. The hybrid effect of hemp fibre and basalt fibre on the tensile, flexural and impact strengths was also investigated for various ratio of hemp/basalt fibre loading such as 1:0, 0.95:0.05, 0.82:0.18, 0.68:0.32, 0.52:0.48, 0.35:0.65, 0.18:0.82 and 0:1. Total fibre loading of the hybrid composites was 40 vol%. The results showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break increase with increasing fibre loading up to 40 vol% and decrease above this value for hemp fibre reinforced PF composite. Similar trend was observed for flexural strength and the maximum value was obtained for 48 vol% hemp fibre loading. Impact strength of hemp/PF composite showed a regular trend of increase with increasing fibre loading up to 63 vol%. Tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength values of basalt/PF composites were found to be lower compared to hemp/PF composites. The tensile strength and elongation at break of basalt/PF composite increased by incorparation of basalt fibre up to 32 vol% and decreased beyond this value. Flexural strength of basalt/PF composite decreased linearly with fibre loading. However, the maximum impact strength was obtained for 48 vol% basalt fibre loading. For hemp/basalt hybrid PF composite, the tensile strength decreased with increasing basalt fibre loading. On the other hand, the flexural and impact strengths showed large scatter. The maximum flexural strength value was obtained for 0.52:0.48 hemp/basalt ratio. Corresponding value for impact strength was obtained for 0.68:0.32 hemp/basalt fibre ratio. (c) 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.