This paper focuses on the prioritization of factors having substantial effects on the surface roughness of wood and wood-based materials in the sawing process. Within the model, four main factors were defined: cutting tool properties, machining parameters, wood structure and properties, and cutting phenomena. Furthermore, each main factor was subdivided into various subfactors. The analytic hierarchy process method was proposed to obtain the priorities of the factors. The results showed that feed speed, tooth shape and geometry, and cutting speed are the most important factors. Based on the obtained results, it can be said that the most important factors can be easily determined by the proposed method. Consequently, this study presents a road map for the wood industry to achieve a high quality surface.