Potential toxicity assessment of mycotoxin fusaric acid with the spectral shift profile on DNA

Çavuşoğlu D., ÇAVUŞOĞLU K., Yalçin E., Çavuşoğlu K.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.30, no.29, pp.73506-73517, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 29
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-023-27436-w
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.73506-73517
  • Keywords: Allium cepa L, Antioxidant/oxidant dynamic, Fusaric acid, Genotoxicity, Meristematic cell damage, Physiology, Spectral shift
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: No


In this study, the multiple toxicities induced by three different doses (1, 5, and 10 μM) of fusaric acid (FA), a mycotoxin, was investigated with Allium test. Physiological (percent germination, root number, root length, and weight gain), cytogenetic (micronucleus = MN, chromosomal abnormalities = CAs, and mitotic index = MI), biochemical (proline level, malondialdehyde = MDA level, catalase = CAT activity, and superoxide dismutase = SOD activity), and anatomical parameters were used as indicators of toxicity. Allium cepa L. bulbs were divided into four groups as one control and three applications. The bulbs in the control group were germinated with tap water for 7 days, and the bulbs in the treatment groups were germinated with three different doses of FA for 7 days. As a result, FA exposure caused a decrease in all physiological parameters examined at all three doses. Besides, all FA doses caused a decrease in MI and an increase in the frequency of MN and the number of CAs. FA promoted CAs such as nucleus with vacuoles, nucleus buds, irregular mitosis, bridge, and misdirection in root meristem cells. DNA and FA interactions, which are the possible causes of genotoxic effects, were examined by spectral analysis, and FA could interact with DNA through intercalation, causing bathochromic and hypochromic shifts in the spectrum. FA also causes toxicity by inducing oxidative stress in cells, confirming this; dose-related increases in root MDA and proline levels were measured as a result of FA exposure. In the root SOD and CAT enzyme activities, increases up to 5 μM doses and decreases at 10 μM doses were measured. FA exposure induced anatomical damage such as necrosis, epidermis cell damage, flattened cell nucleus, thickening of the cortex cell wall, and unclear vascular tissue in root tip meristem cells. As a result, FA caused a comprehensive toxicity by showing an inhibitory effect in A. cepa test material, and the Allium test was a very useful test in determining this toxicity.