Prognosis of Second Primary Malignancies in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survivors: A Multicenter Study by the Turkish Pediatric Hematology Society

Toret E., Aytac S., Guzelkucuk Z., Celkan T., Genc D. B., Sezgin-Evim M., ...More

Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol.46, no.5, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/mph.0000000000002881
  • Journal Name: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, adolescent, childhood, second primary malignancy
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The improved survival rates of childhood cancers raise the long-term risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. The intensity of the treatment protocol used, the use of some groups of chemotherapeutics, and radiotherapy were found to be risk factors for the development of second primary malignancies (SPMs). Forty-one patients who developed acute myelocytic leukemia or any solid organ cancer within 25 years of follow-up, after completion of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment, were included in the study. The mean duration of initial ALL diagnosis to SPM was 9.3 ± 6.1 years. The 3 most common SPMs were acute myelocytic leukemia, glial tumors, and thyroid cancer. Thirteen (81%) of 16 patients exposed to cranial irradiation had cancer related to the radiation field. In total 13/41 (32%) patients died, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 70 ± 8%. Patients older than 5 years old at ALL diagnosis had significantly worse overall survival than cases younger than 5 years old. In conclusion, children and adolescents who survive ALL have an increased risk of developing SPM compared with healthy populations, and physicians following these patients should screen for SPMs at regular intervals.