Thermodynamic analysis of drying cycles utilizing a desiccant wheel thermoelectric modules and heat pipe for the drying of hazel nuts in the East Blacksea climatic conditions

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Saraç B., Demirtaş C., Ayhan T.

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol.149, no.1, pp.4783-4801, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 149 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10973-024-13059-x
  • Journal Name: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Index Islamicus, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.4783-4801
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The use of renewable energy sources to maintain appropriate thermal humidity and temperature conditions in food drying technologies, especially in humid climate zones, is a current area of research. In the Eastern Black Sea Region, the high relative and specific humidity of the atmospheric air lead to a low drying rate of the products. Therefore, in this study, to enhance the drying rate of the products, three models and their psychometric cycles were studied on decreasing the specific humidity of the drying air and increasing the moisture saturation degree of the drying air. The innovative hazelnut drying models proposed for the climatic conditions of the Eastern Black Sea region incorporate several components, including thermoelectric modules (TEM), photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) systems, desiccant wheels (DW), heat pipes (HP) and heat exchangers (HX). The thermodynamic analysis was conducted on the theoretical cycles belonging proposed models. Emphasis was given to the development of Model-C, taking into account the drying conditions specific to hazelnuts in the Eastern Black Sea region, among the cycles named Model-A, Model-B, and Model-C. The energy efficiencies and SEMER values of Model-A, Model-B and Model-C were presented based on selected atmospheric conditions. Each model is valid under its characteristic operating conditions, and the energy efficiencies, SEMER values and the exergetic efficiencies for Model- A, Model-B and Model-C were determined as (4.66%-0.271 kg-H2O kWh−1–62%), (9.87%-0.1542 kg-H2O kWh−1–22%) and (9.13%-0.1381 kg-H2O kWh−1–10%), respectively. Also, presented models of hazelnut drying supported by renewable energy have achieved high sustainable index (SI) values. Consequently, these models ensure energy sustainability in the drying sector and facilitate the assessment of their environmental, economic and social impacts. The utilization of renewable energy in the models will lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions during the drying process. These results indicate that TEM systems are a viable option for food drying in the future.