Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is induced as a result of reentry of the blood and oxygen to ischemic tissue. Antioxidant and some other drugs have protective effect on IRI. In many surgeries and clinical conditions IRI is counteract inevitable. Some anesthetic agents may have a protective role in this procedure. It is known that inhalational anesthetics possess protective effects against IRI. In this review the mechanism of preventive effects of volatile anesthetics and different ischemia-reperfusion models are discussed.