Flame retardancy and mechanical properties of polypropylene composites containing intumescent flame retardants, preceramic polymers, and other additives

Donmez S., Tuzenli Z., BAYRAM G., SAVAŞKAN YILMAZ S.

SPE Polymers, 2024 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/pls2.10126
  • Journal Name: SPE Polymers
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Keywords: flame retardancy, intumescent flame retardant, mechanical properties, poly(dimethylsilane), polypropylene, preceramic polymers
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to investigate the flame retardancy and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP)-based intumescent flame retardants (IFRs) consisting of melamine phosphate (MP) and pentaerythritol (PER), and different additives; boron phosphate (BP), antimony oxide (AO), and preceramic polymers, namely poly(dimethylsilane) (PDMS) and poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PMSQ). The composites were produced by twin-screw extrusion, and then molded by injection molding. Their characterizations were performed with limiting oxygen index (LOI), horizontal burning tests, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile and impact tests. The total amount of IFRs and the additives in polypropylene was kept constant at 20 wt%. The additive concentration was varied as 1, 3, and 5 wt% in the composites. The highest LOI value of 29% was obtained for PP/MP/PER composite with MP/PER ratio of 3/1. PP/IFR-based composites with 1 wt% additive exhibited higher LOI and horizontal burning performance than the other composites with 3 and 5 wt% additives. It is revealed that tensile modulus and impact strength of neat PP were improved with the addition of IFRs, and for each type and amount of the additives used in the study. Highlights: Usage of IFRs, preceramic polymers, BP and AO in PP improved flame retardancy. Lower amount of additives (1%) in PP/IFR composites led to higher LOI values. Additive incorporation enhanced tensile modulus and impact strength of neat PP.