Effect of Drilling Parameters and Tool Geometry on the Thrust Force and Surface Roughness of Aerospace Grade Laminate Composites

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Bolat Ç., Karakılınç U., Yalçın B., Öz Y., Yavaş Ç., Ergene B., ...More

Micromachines, vol.14, no.7, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/mi14071427
  • Journal Name: Micromachines
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymers, delamination, drilling, surface roughness, thrust force
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) have been specially developed to enhance the performance of commercial and military aircraft because of their strength, high stiffness-to-density ratios, and superior physical properties. On the other hand, fasteners and joints of CFRP materials may be weak due to occurring surface roughness and delamination problems during drilling operations. This study’s aim is to investigate the drilling characterization of CFRPs with different drilling parameters and cutting tools. Drilling tests were performed with the Taguchi orthogonal array design (L18: 2^1 3^3). Tests were conducted with three levels of cutting speed (15, 30, 45 m/min), three levels of feed rate (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mm/rev), two levels of drill diameter (3 and 5 mm), and three different types of drills (two twist drills with a point angle of 138° and 120° and one brad drill). Thrust forces were recorded during drilling tests, and afterwards surface roughness and hole delamination were measured. Obtained results were analyzed with Taguchi and two-way ANOVA. The general tendency was that low cutting speed, high feed rate, and small diameter drill caused an increase in thrust force. Surface roughness decreases with increasing tool diameter, decreasing feed, and cutting speed. Delamination factors of the samples dropped depending on decreasing thrust force levels. Remarkably, it is possible to control the delamination factor values via better surface quality. The brad drill and larger point angle have a negative effect on the drilling quality of CFRPs. According to all results, the cutting speed of 45 m/min and feed rate of 0.05 mm/rev using a type II drill having a 120° point angle and 5 mm diameter (12th trial) and the cutting speed of 30 m/min and feed rate of 0.05 mm/rev using a type II drill having a 120° point angle and 3 mm diameter (2nd trial) were determined as optimum drilling conditions.