Evaluation of corneal endothelial cell morphology off and on treatment by specular microscopy in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Koc H., Önal B. S., HOŞOĞLU E.

Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15569527.2024.2303442
  • Journal Name: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cornea endothelium, speculer microscopy
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: To determine the structure and properties of corneal endothelial cells in children and adolescents with ADHD who received methylphenidate treatment at least six months. Method: The prospective, observational study included 33 eyes of 33 patients diagnosed with ADHD who received methylphenidate treatment for at least six months, 33 eyes of 33 patients newly diagnosed with ADHD who did not start medication treatment, and 33 eyes of 33 healthy individuals. Average cell density, coefficient of variation, maximum cell area, normal cell area, minimum cell area, average cell area, and hexagonality ratio values were evaluated by non-contact specular microscopy. The parameters recorded in all three groups were compared. Results: The average age of children in the ADHD + MPH, ADHD, and control groups is 9 ± 1.7, 8.9 ± 2.3, and 8.9 ± 1.8 years, respectively. (p > 0.05) The average MPH treatment dose is 0.94 ± 0.19 mg/kg, the average daily MPH intake is 34.12 ± 14.04 mg, and the average duration of use of MPH is 24.03 ± 12.46 months. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured as an average of 540.45 ± 31.23 in the ADHD + MPH group, 540.61 ± 29.69 in the ADHD group, and 546.58 ± 27.72 in the control group. (p = 0.499) The average coefficient of variation (CV) values were measured as 25.48 ± 4.22 in the ADHD + MPH group, 26.12 ± 3.48 in the ADHD group, and 26.12 ± 3.64 in the control group. (p = 0.491) The average hexagonality ratio (%) (HEX) values were measured as 69.45 ± 8.41 in the ADHD + MPH group, 68.21 ± 6.82 in the ADHD group, and 68.91 ± 7.97 in the control group. (p = 0.892) No statistically significant difference was observed between all three groups in terms of all parameters. Conclusion: Methylphenidate treatment administered for at least six months with a diagnosis of ADHD did not have a toxic effect on the corneal endothelium.