Chromosome number and morphology in 14 taxa belonging to 19 populations of Tripleurospermum Sch. Bip. were studied using karyological and numerical taxonomical techniques. Data on chromosome measurements were analysed using cluster analysis. Chromosome numbers of these taxa are 2n = 2x = 18, 4x = 36 and 5x = 42-48. Seven records are new, two are not consistent with previous counts, and the remainder confirm the very limited previous data (one to three records). A new ploidy level (pentaploidy) is reported for the first time for the genus. Some correlations between ploidy levels and morphological characters are noted and several systematic and evolutionary aspects of the genus are discussed in the light of karyological data. (C) 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 146, 427-438.