Turkey is a rich country from the point of variety and potential of renewable energy resources. Hydros, winds, biomass, solar and geothermal are important renewable and environmentally friendly sources for energy in Turkey. Turkey produces large amount of hydropower with a total gross hydropower potential of 433 TW h/yr, which is equal to 13.8% of the total hydropower Potential of Europe. Technically useable potential is 216 TW h/yr and economic potential is 140 TW h/yr. The main aim of the present study is to investigate hydropower potential of Turkey and small hydropower plants in Eastern Black Sea Region for sustainable energy development in Turkey. The geography of Turkey especially, Eastern Black Sea Region supports and suitable the development of the small hydro plants to increase the energy generation and utilization of available water sources in Turkey. Besides, the paper deals with hydropower policies to meet ever increasing energy demand for sustainable development of Turkey. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.