Screening the toxicity profile and genotoxicity mechanism of excess manganese confirmed by spectral shift

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Tümer C., Çavuşoğlu K., Yalçin E.

Scientific Reports, vol.12, no.1, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1038/s41598-022-25657-6
  • Journal Name: Scientific Reports
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: No


© 2022, The Author(s).In this study, the toxicity induced by excessive doses of manganese (MnCl2), which is one of the essential trace elements for the continuation of the metabolic activities of the organisms, was investigated with the help of the Allium test. Toxicity was investigated by using physiological (percent germination, root length, weight gain), cytogenetic [mitotic index (MI), micronucleus (MN), chromosomal abnormalities (CAs)], biochemical [malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT)] and anatomical (root tip meristematic cell damage) parameters. Allium cepa L. bulbs were divided into four groups as one control and three treatments. The control group was germinated with tap water, and the treatment groups were germinated with 250, 500 and 1000 µM doses of MnCl2. The germination process was continued for 72 h without interruption. At the end of the period, the root tips were collected, washed in distilled water and made ready for microscopic and spectrophotometric analyzes with the help of routine preparation techniques. As a result, the highest germination percentage, root length, weight gain and MI, and the lowest MN frequency, CAs numbers, MDA level, SOD and CAT enzyme activities were determined in the control group (group I). MnCl2 exposure caused a decrease in physiological parameter values and an increase in cytogenetic (except MI) and biochemical parameter values, depending on the dose. MnCl2 exposure induced MN and CAs such as fragment, sticky chromosome, vagrant chromosome, unequal distribution of chromatin and bridge. This genotoxic effect of MnCl2 was associated with DNA–MnCl2 interaction, and this interaction was also confirmed by bathochromic and hypochromic shifts in spectral analysis. Anatomical damages such as epidermis cell damage, flattened cell nucleus, cortex cell damage and cortex cell wall thickening were observed after MnCl2 treatment. As a result, it has been determined that excessive doses of the trace element Mn cause physiological, cytogenetic, biochemical and anatomical toxicity and A. cepa test material is a reliable bio-indicator in determining this toxicity.