Vibration testing and performance evaluation of Hagia Sophia bell tower after recent restoration

YANIK Y., Aymelek A., Çalık İ., TÜRKER T.

Construction and Building Materials, vol.347, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 347
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.128617
  • Journal Name: Construction and Building Materials
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Dynamic characteristics, Historical structures, Masonry structures, Model calibration, Restoration effects, Seismic performance, Vibration testing, HISTORICAL MASONRY MINARET, FE MODEL, IDENTIFICATION, PARAMETERS
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 Elsevier LtdHistorical structures are very valuable in terms of culture and history because they are the legacy of the past and the trust of the future. These structures require structural investigation and assessment to survive their life. By developing technology, the continuous and/or partial monitoring of these structures has become widespread in many parts of world for last decades. This study presents the structural dynamic parameter identification and the seismic performance evaluation of Hagia Sophia Bell Tower. This historical tower was built by using masonry cut stones in 1204 in Trabzon, Türkiye. Many restorations were made on the bell tower in different times in the past and the last one was executed in 2020. After this restoration, ambient vibration tests were performed on the tower by using developed measurement systems. The dynamic characteristics were attained by analyzing the collected data and were compared the results of previous studies to determine the effects of the last restoration. Also, an initial finite element model was generated by using solid elements in ANSYS Workbench software and the model was calibrated according to the experimental natural frequencies attained from the last restoration. The structural performance was evaluated by performing seismic analyses according to the current Türkiye Building Earthquake Code by considering the local site effects and seismicity. These analyses were performed on the weak direction of the tower in the initial and calibrated finite element models. The maximum top displacement, drift ratios, principal stress values and their distributions were determined and the seismic vulnerability was evaluated by considering these values.