This article is about the situation of the Alewi-Turkmens living in Kars-Erzurum region in the first years of the establishment of the Republic, and a report about the Alewi-Turkmen living in the area written by Esat Uras who was the inspector of the Republican People's Party in Kars-Erzurum region. So he wrote this report with the political-ideological point of view of the period and of the policies of the party which he belonged to. The Alewi-Turkmen who came to the region at various dates and especially inhabited around Ardahan and Sarikamis regions were continuing their lives in their villages while Esat Uras was the inspector in the region. The Alewi-Turkmen living in these villages were critically important because this region was a sensitive region for the administrators of the Republic of Turkey. The border region between Turkey and Russia was dominated by Russia about 40 years after the Ottoman-Russian War (1877-78), and joined the motherland again in 1918. In such a process, the already diverse ethnic and religious structure in the region had become even more complicated. This situation has brought many problems for the administrators of Turkish Republic in the first years of the Republic and the people of the region. The Turkmen living in the border area between Turkey and Russia have experienced the difficulties caused by this situation together with other groups living in the region. In addition, some other difficulties specific to Alewi-Turkmen have appeared within the course of history. The aim of the article is to bring up the situation, the problems related to other problems, and the Alewi-Turkmen in Central Anatolia in the first years of the Republic, and to give information about the way administrators viewed these groups by using a number of documents among which the one belonging to Esat Uras is the most important.