ROBOTICA, vol.10, no.22, pp.2222-2232, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded)
Inverted pendulum systems (IPS) are mostly used to demonstrate the control rules for keeping the pendulum at a balanced upright position due to a slight force applied to the cart system. This paper presents an application for nonlinear control of an x-z type IPS by using a PID controller with newly established evolutionary tuning method Lightning Search Algorithm (LSA). A single, double and triple PID controller system is tested with conventional and self-tuning controllers to get a better understanding of the performance of the given system. The mathematical modelling of the x-z type IPS, the theoretical explanation of the LSA and simulation analysis of the x-z type IPS is put forward entirely. The LSA algorithm solves the optimization problem of PID controller in an evolutionary way. The most effective way of making comparisons, is evaluating the performance results with a well-known optimization technique or with the previous accepted results. We have compared the system’s performance with PSO and a classical control study in the literature. According to the simulation results, LSA-tuned double PID controller has the ability to decrease the overshoot by about 10% compared to the conventional tuned controllers. Finally, it can be concluded that the LSA supported PID can better stabilize the pendulum angle and track the reference for no disturbed and slightly disturbed systems.