On-growing of horse mackerel is not known in the world. Recently, we have initiated on-growing of the Mediterranean horse mackerel in the Black Sea. Therefore, we aim to compare proximate composition and fatty acid profile of on-growing and wild horse mackerels to evaluate the effect on their nutritional value. Captured horse mackerels less than 13 cm were kept on-growing in sea cages and fed sea bass feed for a year in the southern Turkish Black Sea. Results showed seasonal variations in the proximate contents and fatty acid profile of both on-growing and wild fish groups (p < 0.05). Protein contents of the wild horse mackerel group were significantly higher than the on-growing mackerel group, while the opposite situation was observed for lipid contents (p < 0.05). Despite higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels (as fatty acid methyl esters %) of wild horse mackerel in comparison with on-growing group, much higher EPA + DHA contents were accounted for in on-growing fish in the edible portion resulting from higher lipid contents of these samples. The results suggest that lower amounts of fish meat, 50-90 g, from on-growing mackerel would cover the daily suggested value of EPA + DHA; this level is calculated as 51-150 g for wild fish meat.